Cultivated for nearly four thousand years, pears have been known to man since ancient times. They originated in Asia and spread throughout Europe during the Roman Empire. Until the sixteenth century pears were tough and always eaten cooked, but in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, gardeners for European noblemen began to crossbreed varieties, competing with each other to get a pear with a soft, buttery flesh. Most of the pears we know today are derived from those cultivars.
Pears are grown throughout the United States and Europe and are now being introduced as commercial crops in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Chile. In the United States, Oregon, Washington, and California produce particularly excellent pears.
This is one fruit you do not want tree-ripened. Pears have a characteristically gritty texture caused by cells in the flesh called stone cells. Although more and more of these have been bred out, all varieties still contain them. Picking pears before the fruit has matured and holding them under controlled conditions prevents the formation of too many stone cells.
Pears are delicate even when they're hard and green, so they're always picked by hand. Most markets don't sell really ripe pears because they bruise so easily, but it's very easy to ripen them at home.
Because they crossbred so easily, there are somewhere between four thousand and five thousand cultivated varieties. Three of those are commonly available to shoppers here.
Comice A very large, round, short-necked pear, the Comice is my personal favorite. Of all the pears, I think it's the sweetest and most fragrant. Comices have a greenish yellow skin, sometimes with a red blush. Originally a French variety, they have been grown in North America for more than one hundred years. Because they scar very easily, they're sometimes hard to sell here. Ethnic groups buy them, but a lot of Americans just don't like the way they look. With a peak season in November and December, they're one of the best things going around the holiday season. As the demand for them grows, producers are starting to grow more of them, but Comices are still not as commonly available as Bartletts and Anjous, so they're still relatively expensive. Comice pears are available from August to March.
Anjou Anjou pears are almost always oval, with a very short neck. Immature Anjous are pale green and turn yellowish green as they ripen. They have a very juicy, spicy flesh that's a bit firmer than the Bartlett. Anjous are available from October through May.
Bosc Although similar in appearance to the European Conference pear, the Bosc is much juicer and less granular in texture. It is relatively long and slender; of all the pears, it probably has the longest neck. An unripe Bosc has a brown skin that changes to a golden russet, becoming lighter and brighter in color as it ripens. A ripe Bosc can get almost golden yellow, but it will still retain shades of russet. The Bosc has a yellow flesh that's buttery, sweet, and juicy. It has a very long season - August through May.
Green pears should be free from blemishes. Ripe pears - especially tender varieties like the Comice - are going to show a few scars. Avoid bruised or too-soft fruit, but don't be afraid to bring home pears that are still green. That's the way you're going to find most of them.
Ripening and Storing
Place unripe pears in a bowl or paper bag, leave them at room temperature, and they'll ripen in a few days to a week, depending on how green they are when you buy them.
Most pears show a subtle change in color as they ripen, and some develop a sweet fragrance. You can test a pear for ripeness by applying gentle pressure to the stem end with your thumb - it should yield a bit. You can hold off the ripening process by refrigerating them, and they'll hold for a long time - as long as three to four weeks. A few days before you want to eat them, bring them out to ripen. You can refrigerate a ripe pear too, but at that point it's only going to last a couple days.
There are lots of ways to eat pears. They're good with prosciutto. You can use them in any recipe that calls for apples. Use several different varieties, all on the green side, to make a terrific pie. My aunt used to make pear pies just like apple pies, mixing in one or two quinces. You can poach pears and serve them with strawberry sauce for a simple, very pretty dessert that tastes great.
During the holidays, line a basket with napkins, pile up Comices or Forelles or a mix, tuck in sprigs of holly and maybe a few ornaments, and you'll have a pretty centerpiece that's also a good way to ripen the fruit.
Christmas Pears with Strawberry Sauce
Pear Praline Pie
Other recipes from Produce Pete.